(Garcinia schomburgkiana)

A  tree of  madan

Family: Guttiferae

Madan is a native of Thailand.  It is found growing wild there in lowland and swampy areas of the evergreen forests in Central and South Thailand.  The fruits are consumed by local people in various ways.  Madan fruits are mostly gathered from wild growing trees but some trees are also planted by people around homes. 

Leaves and flowers of madan tree

            Madan is, however, not grown on orchard scale.


A small to medium evergreen tree 5-10 m tall. Uttilization:

Leaves dark green, opposite, lanceolate, 9 cm long and 2.5 cm wide.

Madan flower

Flowers  borne in clusters of 3-6; petals 4, somewhat pinkish in colour, 3 mm wide and 6.5 mm long.

Fruits  ovate to oblong, 5-7 cm long, and 2-3 cm wide, shiny green at maturity, taste sour.


Madan fruits are very rich in vitamin A and calcium.  Since the fruits taste quite sour, so it is not easy to eat these fresh.  So these are used in side dishes, salads and made into sauces.  The fruit of madan is also processed to make preserved fruit in syrup, pickled fruit and dried fruit. Fermented fruit is stuffed with minced pork to make a soup, or it can be made into a sweet.

            Yound leaves of are served as a vegetable accompaniment to many Thai dishes and can be eaten either raw or cooked.

Madan fruit

            The food value of fruits as well as leaves is given in the following table:

Composition of madan fruits and young leaves (Poomipamorn and Kumkong, 1997) (Figures expressed per 100 g of fresh wt)

ComponentsFruitYoung leaves
Carbohydrates (g)6.57.3
Protein (g)0.30.3
Fat (g)0.10.1
Fibres (g)0.4
Calcium (mg)17103
Phosphorous (mg)7.08.0
Iron (mg)
Vitamin A (IU) (carotene)431225
Vitamin B (mg) (thiamine)0.01
Vitamin B2 (mg) (riboflavin)0.040.04
Vitamin B5 (mg) (niacin)0.02
Vitamin C (mg)5.016.0


The tree likes humid conditions and wet soils.  The tree can be propagated from seed which germinate readily.  It is also possible to raise new plants of madan by air layering.